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Continue Reading. Art of maya by din ohla. About this book by C-xet Indothamas Maedi. The content in this eBook is for informational purposes only. Any advice that I give within this eBook is my opinion based on my own personal experience.
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All Rights Reserved. Intro to 3D Software Blender is only one of many 3D graphics applications. What is 3D? Essentially, you take something from your imagination and make the idea more real than has ever been possible in the history of the world. Sound awesome? It totally is! Not easy, mind you, but definitely possible.
I am confident you have seen or experienced a plethora of 3D graphics. What you may not know, however, is just how widely they are used. It is always best to have a goal in mind when starting to learn a new skill, so I have outlined below a few industries in which 3D content is heavily utilized today. See any that interests you? More recently, directors have been animating their entire film before it is even shot with live actors.
This not only includes television commercials, but print advertising as well. This can help in pitching a project to investors for a skyscraper, bridge, library, etc… or in selling a home before it is built. You can create your own board game pieces, replace a broken dishwasher part, build a gun from scratch not recommended! Heck, scientists are even on their way to 3D printing human organs.
Especially since you can start right now! But which software is for you? In this book we will be learning Blender hence the title , but I want to list some other helpful software here as well in case you might want to use them alongside Blender.
Each package has its own strengths and weaknesses, so you might find that one suits you better than another. Software is just a tool to get you to your destination, so choose whichever one will help you achieve your goals the easiest. Although both packages can do either, 3DS Max is used primarily in the game industry and Maya is used mainly for film and animation. You can download both programs for free for student use only. It is designed to be used with a tablet, and is very artist friendly.
Unity shines when it comes to mobile, 2D, or simple 3D games. Great for building houses and mechanical parts. Free for students. There is no apparent price or way to purchase, so it is likely not open to the public at this time.
Similar to After Effects, but more powerful and extremely flexible. Photoshop can be used to paint textures, create matte backgrounds, and color correct rendered images. So what is Blender?
Blender is an all-in-one 3D software that can be used to model, sculpt, texture, animate, camera track, render, and composite awesome looking graphics from start to finish. The best part?
It was written in by Ton Roosendaal as an in-house software for a Dutch animation studio called NeoGeo. It was originally sold to other studios as well, but in early Blender needed to be shelved due to economic decline. Blender has been free ever since, and is continually being developed thanks to generous donations from the community. I started using Blender in because, like most people, I like free things.
I stuck with it over time thanks to its awesome community. I have consumed so much free learning material, benefited from helpful in-depth critiques on forums, and been motivated by the many contests. So what are you waiting for? Go get it! Blender has to be, considering that you can use it to make almost anything you can imagine.
That freedom, however, takes some getting used to. By the end of this chapter, you should be comfortable enough navigating the software to create your first project. A window will pop up, and navigate to the Input category. To save this as default, click Save User Settings at the bottom, and exit the window.
You may have noticed already that Blender is a little different than other applications when it comes to selecting blenderhd.
This may take a few minutes to get used to, but it will be helpful in the long run because it allows users to multitask when doing complex tasks.
The object you select will be highlighted in bright orange. Practice selecting by switching between the camera, lamp, and cube.
There are three more ways to select objects in Blender. The orange object called the active object. More on this later, but you can think of the active object as the king over all your other selected objects. Transforming Objects The three main ways to transform objects in any 3D program is by translating, rotating, and scaling.
One way to transform an object is by using the manipulator handles. The manipulator also called widget, gizmo, or grabber-thingy by some is by default three arrows that point in three different directions.
The red arrow points towards the X axis, the green arrow towards the Y axis, and the blue arrow toward the Z axis. There is a little compass in the bottom left corner of the 3D view in case you ever need a reminder. Click and drag on one of colored the arrows to move the object along that axis.
Dragging from the white circle inside the arrows will move the object in relation to your view. At the bottom of the 3D view, you will see five buttons that control the manipulator. The first button that looks like the three axes will toggle the manipulator on and off. This can be helpful if you find it distracting later on. The second arrow-shaped button turns on the translate handles, and is selected by default. Selecting curve-shaped button will switch the handles to rotation handles, and blenderhd.
You can also manipulate an object using only hotkeys. Left click to confirm. You can also transform along the local axis as by pressing the axis key twice. Try using all transformation types to position the default cube on its edge, similar to this: Once you have done so, try scaling the cube along the Y axis.
You will notice that the shape is becoming distorted. This is where that Transform Orientation menu we saw on the last page comes in handy. You can think of global orientation like north, south, east and west. No matter which direction you are facing, a compass will always point north. Now we can scale the cube much more naturally.
Autodesk maya 2017 basics guide pdf free free –
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Mar 19, · Sketchbook Pro is one of them. With an interface designed for tablet use (you can work without a keyboard!), great brush engine, beautiful, clean workspace, and many drawing-assisting tools, it’s a perfect choice for both beginners and professionals. In this tutorial, I will introduce you to the basics of the program in its desktop version. 1. Jun 12, · Use the search bar, career guide to find out the best choices for your chosen field. Highlights- – Learn from over high-quality certifications available across 9 distinct categories all of which are absolutely free to complete. Jun 15, · دانلود نرم افزار پیشرفته مدل سازی سه بعدی Autodesk Maya متحرک سازی حرفه ای با Autodesk Maya برنامه کامل طراحی اجسام سه بعدی نسخههای و و در فایل Readme آورده شده است و .
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How do they compare in features and price? Before you can work in 3D space, you should have some skills in 2D drawing and layout. Moving around in the 3D window is controlled by the mouse and the keyboard number pad NOT the numbers across the top of the keyboard- these change layers.
Think of a standard 3-view orthographic drawing- top, front and right side views. These views match up with the number pad 7,1 and 3 keys look at their arrangement on the keyboard- just like the views. Put your cursor in the 3D window and try typing those numbers. By default, the camera is represented by a single line, representing the edge of what is rendered and shaded to the outside.
You also have the option of turning on an additional dashed line box to represent a Title Safe box helpful in planning. Changing these settings will be discussed in a later chapter. You will also notice a small note in the upper-left corner of the viewport telling you the view name and if it orthographic or perspective. The number pad 5 key will always toggle you between perspective and orthographic views.
The number pad arrow keys 2,4,6,8 will rotate you around in 3D space. The mouse serves a number of functions. Wherever the 3D cursor is located is where the next item you create will be placed.
The 3D cursor serves other purposes that we will discuss later. The mouse wheel serves 2 purposes. Holding down the mouse wheel will let you rotate the view. Holding down Shift and Mouse Wheel will let you pan around on the screen.
RoboDude Says: Practice using these controls before moving on to other lessons. Without getting a grasp on working in 3D space, you will have a difficult time creating and modifying objects. We’re still not really able to create anything yet, but soon. You have a default screen with several viewports. You may have noticed that along with the Tool Shelf on the left side, you can also have a Transform panel on the right of your viewport.
These are definitely useful panels as you will soon see, but they take up a lot of space. So how do you bring them back out when you need them? This will open the panels up again pressing either button a 2 nd time will close the panel up. Accessing those buttons can be done by holding down your mouse wheel like it’s a button and using it to pan left-to-right.
The same can be done to access the panels below the buttons. Panels can also be minimized and maximized to take up less space by clicking on the small triangles found on each.
Most rendering and animations programs allow for multiple viewports along with graphical views of various data. Blender allows the same. Remember that Blender starts with 5 viewports, but only one 3D View window discussed on pages and You can change the size of any of these windows by using the LMB and dragging on the line between the viewports.
In order to split a viewport, move your cursor over the small triangle in the upper right corner of the 3D View Window. Joining viewports together works the same way. Click on the triangle and drag over the viewport you wish to remove. I like to traditionally work with 2 views like the example shown below. Windows can also be split along a vertical line. Some 3D programs traditionally give you 4 viewports that are set-up as front, top, right side, and perspective or camera views.
Basically, it is up to what you want to work with. Get use to working with the principle views top, front, side in orthographic mode when locating the 3D cursor. You will usually need to check the location of the cursor in at least 2 views when placing objects. New to Blender 2. Practice is the key. Blender uses the number pad and mouse to control your 3D views and location. If you were asked to re-design the commands for moving in 3D space, would you use the same configuration, or develop something different?
How does working in 3D space relate to math? Where have you ever used the concepts of X,Y, and Z in a math course?
Research GPS on the internet. How does GPS work so that it can determine where you are on a map? In this chapter we will talk about creating basic shapes and using modifiers to form them.
Blender has a lot of different object types. Right now we will only discuss Meshes. Call it Sculpture. Since there a variety of operating system and saving structures, you may need to set up folders as needed. RoboDude Asks: Why do I keep losing my work? Since Blender’s file interface differs from most other programs, it can be easy to lose track of where you are saving files and not saving often enough. Remember to always save your work often!
Select Add, then Mesh and select UV Sphere my mesh menu may display more items than your menu due to selecting different add-ons in the preferences menu. You can change these by dragging the mouse in the block or by clicking in the box to type. Your sphere will change to reflect your settings. You can also adjust some other settings there. When you place an object in Blender, it comes into the scene in Object Mode. Edit mode is intended for modifying the shape of the object by selecting vertices on the object.
Object mode affects the object as a whole. The Tab button toggles you between the two. You can also see and change your mode at the bottom of the viewport. After inserting an object into your scene, always make sure you’re in Object Mode. Otherwise, the next object you create will be joined to that mesh! Notice that there are a few more modes than just Edit and Object. Some of these will be discussed in later chapters. Mesh Types When pressing the space bar and choosing to add a mesh, you will notice several mesh types often called primitives available.
More can be added through Add-Ons in the User Preferences menu. They are: Plane- A simple two-dimensional shape.
Can be sub divided and used with proportional vertex editing to make nice hilly terrain or shaped. Cube- Basic 3D shape. Nice object to start with to shape into rectangles and other shapes. UV Sphere- A sphere generated with rings and segments, like the latitude and longitude of the earth.
Icosphere- A sphere generated with triangular shapes. Like Epcot Center. Cylinder- Like a can, with ends closed, but if you leave the ends off, it is a tube. Cone- Basic closed cone shape. Grid- Can be used and extruded like the plane. Monkey- A fun shape that someone decided to include in the mesh list.
Empty Mesh- A mesh without any visible vertices, edges or faces. Torus- A donut shape. RoboDude Asks: How do I set the quality of a mesh? Remember that after selecting a mesh type, you will see the settings for that mesh at the bottom of the Tool Shelf.
Also, don’t forget to be in Object Mode when making a new mesh- otherwise, your new mesh will be joined to another mesh. You can also lock numbers. RoboDude Says: If you would like to move something along a straight axis line X,Y,Z , enter the Move command and drag the object the direction you wish to go. The object will lock on a straight line. In the Move command, you can also type X,Y, or Z. We will look at changing this to an actual metric or imperial system later.
Using the Transform Widgets: Rather than typing R,S or G to manipulate an object, you can turn on the widget feature and simply grab the axis you wish to change. Create a sculpture using at least 1 of every type of mesh found in the Add-Mesh menu do not use grid or circle.
Remember to make sure you are in Object Mode before creating a new mesh. Use a plane for the ground and scale it large. Divide your 3D window into two so you can have one working view and one camera view. Use the RMB to select objects on the screen. Experiment with sizing and rotating objects.
Remember to make use of the number keys 1,3 and 7 to change your principle views! Also play with the camera location and angle to get a nice view! Save your work often! Pink dots are unselected vertices while yellow dots are selected vertices. To select multiple vertices, hold down the Shift key while RMB clicking on them. To select vertices in circle select mode, hold down the LMB. To de-select vertices, hold down the mouse wheel. Viewing Shading Options: In order to be able to see your objects better in object and edit modes, you can change the way your scene is displayed.
All are available in the bottom of the 3D window by the drawing modes. Solid Wireframe Edit Mode Selection Options: By default, you are selecting vertices, but you can also select edges and faces. You can find these options at the bottom of the 3D window while in edit mode.
In Solid view, this button will hide back faces, edges and verticies. These 2 buttons not only effect the way things look on the screen, but how they will be rendered in a final image.
Be aware that the appearance of objects on the screen are not displayed at the same quality as a final rendered image. Auto Smooth found in the Object Data buttons is used to smooth objects when faces meet at a certain degree or less while larger angles are kept sharp. This is a great feature when Smooth does not work properly alone.
To use Auto Smooth, hit the Auto Smooth button. Adjust the degree angles as needed. To see a rendered picture of what the camera views, press F Smooth and Auto-Smooth are great for flat objects as well and help rendering. You will make a duplicate of those vertices.
When extruding a face, it will extrude in a locked direction, perpendicular to the face. When extruding connected vertices only, the extrusion will be free-moving. Feel free to experiment with them. Below are example of a cube, extruded from the right side only right 4 vertices were selected several times using scale and rotate and a pawn extruded from a circle. The Tool Shelf has different commands for edit and object modes. Duplicate or Join selected Objects.
Origin: Used to re-center your object’s geometry and center point. Create Tab: Create meshes, curves, lamps, and other objects. The object’s origin is the small dot for an object. By default, it is in the middle of the object, but can get moved if you move an object in edit mode moving verticies only and not the entire object. To fix this, or to move it to a usable Grease Pencil: location for example, a Used to make door needs it’s origin on the mark-up notes on edge to act like a hinge , your screen.
Helpful Smooth Vertex- Smooths out with smoothing. Goof for Add: game design. Subdivide- cuts selected verticies and provides more detail. Set some basic actions Duplicate- Make copies. Remove: Deletion options, merging of vertices, and removal of double verticies.
Proportional Editing now also works in Object Mode! By selecting the prop. You have several options for effecting vertices in proportional editing. We usually use Sharp or Smooth falloff, but feel free free to experiment with the other options.
The examples below are with one vertex selected. You will see a circle on the screen that changes size. Knife Project: The Knife Project tool allows you to project the shape of one mesh onto another one. This is a great feature when you need a group of vertices that match a specific shape, like text or a circle, that can be extruded or have a different material applied.
Here is an example of knife projecting a circle onto a cube. In order to use knife project, select the projected object first the filled circle in this case , then the object to project onto the cube while holding shift. The object will project according to the view you are in, so select the proper view for projecting.
The mesh will project onto the cube. While the problem may not be apparent as you work, problems will occur during rendering or while performing other editing features such as Boolean operations. With experience, you will encounter this problem less frequently. A very common problem seen in many 3d models, even professionally, is shown to the right called Z-Fighting. Z- Fighting occurs when 2 faces occupy the same space and the program has trouble deciding which one to render.
The result is typically a darker area on the model. When you press the button, Blender will tell you if and how many double vertices were found in the top bar. Removing double faces can be a little more difficult. Many times, removing the double vertices will also take care of the double face problem, but not always. Sometime, the double faces will display differently in the view port, making it easier to recognize them. The first thing you need to do is create a plane in the top view 7 key.
While in edit mode, make sure all vertices are selected vertices are yellow. Do this a few times. Select a single vertex somewhere near center.
Select Smooth Falloff. Select other vertices and falloffs for more hills and shapes. This will smooth the mesh in display and final output. Your job is to create that logo. This is the basic scene, but as you work through the chapters, you will be encouraged to add more elements and details to your lighthouse and landscape to make it your own.
Again, we will be using this file for the next several chapters, so keep it safe and save often! We will use the left viewport for working in and the right top one for camera and 3D views. Adjust the viewport size similar to shown. For now, you may want to turn off the 3D widgets. Remember that you can close and open the Tool Shelf and Transform panels at any time. Often, you will be unable to see all of the buttons and panels in the Transform and Tool Shelf bars. Scroll your mouse wheel in the panels to view everything.
The plane you created on the previous page will be used for our ground. Our next step is to scale it up a bit. To do this precisely, we will use the Transform Panel. Change the Scale X,Y, and Z to Close the Transform Panel. You may need to zoom out to see the entire plane.
In the Tool Shelf, click Subdivide 6 times. Your plane should be well subdivided. Selected While holding down the LMB, select half the vertices as shown. Keep the edge random similar to what is shown so it looks like a rough shoreline. If you select too many vertices, remember that by holding down the mouse wheel, you can deselect vertices.
Your plane will now just look like a line. Move them up about 2 Blender grid blocks. Use your right side viewport to spin around and get a nice look at the landscape.
Randomly pull the edges of the cliff up and down to different levels. You may even want to do some of this with proportional editing off. Try selecting a few vertices back on the high flat land and create some hills. Leave a flat area close to the cliff to place the lighthouse later. Press it and you should see a much better looking landscape you must be in object mode to see the smoothing. Start by adding an Empty object in the top view 7 number pad key. An Empty is basically used for targeting purposes and does not render as a visible object.
Scale it up a bit. Now, RMB click on the camera to select it. We will add a Tracking constraint to the camera to always point toward the Empty. Both objects will be highlighted. A dashed line indicates the link. With the camera selected only, move it around- it always points to the Empty. If the link appears to work backwards, it means you had the Empty selected first. Use the UNDO command to back up and try again.
Try to get the camera low so it looks as though you are viewing the shore line from a boat. Place the Empty on the cliff line. Use the picture below to frame up your view. You do not want to see any edges on your rendering. Feel free to develop and refine the landscape contour any way you wish. The more time you spend with it, the quicker you will become comfortable with the program and the more realistic it will become.
Use the default setting of 32 vertices, radius of 1, and Fill Type- Triangle Fan. These setting will be fine for what we are making. Depending on what you are making and what it will be used for, you may require more or less vertices. You will now need to switch to the Front View 1 so the circle appears as a line.
If you filled the circle, it will extrude on the Z axis automatically. Extrude the lighthouse about 3 Blender grid blocks high and LMB click to place them. This is your lighthouse- feel free to adjust sizes as desired. Remember to stay in the front view throughout this process! Rotated views can cause a distorted lighthouse. It is now time to make the small walkway around the top. This will place the new extruded vertices right on top of the old ones.
Pull your mouse away from the lighthouse and scale the walkway outward as desired. LMB click when you have a good size. Extrude again to give the walkway some height. Continue extruding and shaping to get the light area and the roof.
The point of the roof will actually have 32 vertices which you could scale very small so that it appears to be a single point, but we will use a Tool Shelf command to correct this.
You will see that 31 vertices are being removed, leaving only one at the center. The lighthouse looks good, but angular. It will take more than Smooth Shading to make it look good. Some edges actually need to stay sharp. This is where Auto Smooth becomes important. Select the lighthouse again. Ignore how the lighthouse look on the screen.
Some things are smooth that should remain sharp and some other strange edge effects. You will notice a degree angle below the Auto Smooth button. Leaving it a the default of 30 degrees should work well, but feel free to experiment with other setting.
Basically, this setting determines which faces are smoothed and which ones are kept sharp. We are finished with our lighthouse for now. If you have the time, feel free to modify the lighthouse, change the style, add more features, etc. A good possible addition could be to use Torus and cylinder meshes to create a railing around the walkway. Remember, the Torus mesh features can be adjusted in the bottom half of the Tool Shelf. They will retain any materials you have placed on them, but will be one object.
Also available in the Tool Shelf. Separating Meshes: In order to break up a mesh, you need to be in edit mode Tab Key and select the vertices you wish to separate from the rest of the mesh. You also an option to separate all loose parts. Select the option of what you wish to delete. Adding Faces: Sometimes, you need to fill in holes in a mesh by creating your own faces.
To do this, go into edit mode and select the vertices you wish to face together you are limited to 4 vertices in a group. A face will be formed. Here is an example of 2 cubes joined together with a space that needs filled between them.
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Projects can be found, and added to, on the Projects page. Raspberry Pi Datasheets can be found on the DataSheets page. Developed and marketed by Autodesk, AutoCAD was first released in December as a desktop app running on microcomputers with internal graphics controllers.
AutoCAD is used across a wide range of industries, by architects, project managers, engineers, graphic designers, and many other professionals. However if you look at the upper left hand corner there is a button with the letter A written in red. That is called the application menu of the AutoCAD software. This means that the active workspace is 3D modeling. Application Menu This provides the user with file options like save, open, print. It has such tabs as home, solid, surface, mesh and view among others for the case of 3D workspace.
Depending on which tab you are on, you will see a collection of tool icons just below it which are organized into panels. The entire collection of tool icons is referred to as the ribbon. As a result the tabs on the menu bar are called ribbon tabs. Ribbon This is a collection of tool panels representing groups of tools and features where you will be selecting tools to draw, edit, or perform other functions.
It occurs immediately below the menu bar. Clicking on any of the tabs on the menu bar will give you a different ribbon. Drawing Area This is a virtual sheet or modeling environment where your designs appear. It is a boundless area on which your designs are created on a scale regardless of their actual life size.
The drawing area is also called the canvas. In the default condition, the drawing area will have three icons on display: i. The user coordinate system icon at the bottom left corner.
The cross hairs or drawing cursor which may be at any position on the screen depending on whether the user has touched the mouse or not. The view cube at the top right corner. This is very useful in 3D drawing because it facilitates viewing the object from multiple directions. Quick Access toolbar This includes the basic file-handling functions that you find in virtually all windows application programs.
It occurs at the immediate right of the application menu. It carries such functions as workspace switching and title, new file, open file, save and undo among others. If you are online type a query there in case you get stuck. In the lower-left corner of the drawing area, you see an L-shaped arrow. This is the UCS icon, which tells you your orientation in the drawing. This icon becomes helpful as you start to work with complex 2D drawings and 3D models.
The X and Y arrows indicate the X- and Y-axes of your drawing. Command Window. As you type in commands on the command line, or pick commands on the ribbon panels, a message is displayed on the command window telling you what to do next.
When you issue any command it may also display a list of options related to that command. By so doing it prompts you on your next move. Thus it is also known as the command prompt. The command window and the ribbon complement each other i. However the command prompts that appear on the command window prevent the user from getting confused. To the extreme left it carries the coordinate readout which indicates to the user the current position of the cursor.
Towards the right next to the coordinate readout is the drawing aids panel which carries such tools as object snap, object snap tracking, dynamic UCS and polar tracking among others. These aids assist the user in managing snap and tracking actions. They are activated or deactivated by switching them on or off respectively.
To the extreme right of the status bar we find another panel which contains the model and layout tabs, annotation scale and workspace switching tool gear wheel icon among others. You can switch between workspaces by using the Workspace Switching Tool. You can also customize the workspace the way you want and then save it. It will be appearing on the list of workspaces during switching and you can select it as an option. Workspace switching tool takes the form of a gear wheel located at the bottom right hand corner of the active window.
Clicking on it produces a drop down list of other alternative workspaces. Clicking on either changes the workspace to the selected Alternatively you can switch the workspace by clicking on the downward arrow besides the name of the current workspace on the quick access toolbar.
The general file handling commands include file saving, file opening, file closing and printing of drawings. You are the required to navigate through the folders in the save in slot to select the folder in which you want to save your drawing.
Type in the file name and then click save. If you modify a drawing you may wish to save it again but retaining the original template. In this case select save as from the file pull down or the application menu.
Give it a name that signifies its current status i. Click save. As with any Windows program, you can save it under its original name by click on the Save tool on the Quick Access toolbar or under a different name by choosing Save As from the Application menu, thereby creating a new file.
Some will require modifications at virtually every stage. Others involve a series of iterative stages before settling on the final copy. In these circumstances, AutoCAD offers the required flexibility as opposed to manual drawing. To keep track of all the modifications, the Save As tool is very essential. A dialogue box appears asking whether to save the changes on the drawing. When a command prompts you for a point, you can use the mouse to specify a point, or you can enter a coordinate value at the command prompt.
If the dynamic input is switched you can enter coordinate values in tooltips near the cursor. Two-dimensional coordinates can be entered as either Cartesian X, Y or Polar coordinates. In 2D, you specify points on the XY plane, also called the work plane. The X value of Cartesian coordinate specifies the horizontal distance, and the Y value specifies the vertical distance.
The origin point 0, 0 indicates where the two axes meet. Polar Coordinate System Polar coordinates use a distance and an angle to locate a point. Absolute and Relative Coordinates i. Absolute coordinates Represents a specific point in the current work plane relative to the origin point 0,0. To enter an absolute coordinate, type the values as a Cartesian coordinate X,Y or Polar coordinate distance, angle. Relative coordinate A relative coordinate is a point specified with reference to the last point specified.
We emphasize that it is with reference to your last specified point and not to the origin. This is the distinguishing aspect between relative and absolute coordinates. Dynamic Input When dynamic input is on, tooltips display information near the cursor as it moves.
It is called dynamic input because the information moving with the cursor is updated with the motion of the cursor. If you type the X value and press tab, the X field box displays a lock icon, The Y field is active and you can enter its value. This procedure applies to any other set of fields for instance distance and angle.
Overview When drawing in both 2D and 3D, you may wish to: a. Get a closer look magnify your drawing. View hidden details c. Bring the whole drawing into focus. View the hidden details of your 3D drawing. For a, b and c use the zoom and pan tools as follows: i. Zoom in to magnify and zoom out to minimize the size. Zooming out enables you to see the details that are currently spilt out of the screen or make the object smaller in readiness to add details. The pan tool allows you to drag your drawing to a convenient location on the screen.
For d use the orbit tool. It is the tool that enables you to view the objects in your drawing from different angles. It is very essential, when drawing in 3D.